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74                        THE FATE OF MAN

orthodoxy in Russian Communism are well known.
Soviet Russia has become the classic instance of
" social orders" issued to cultural thinkers.

This means the end of individualism in the
worst sense.    The egoist individualism of bour-
geois   culture   should   have been   done   away
with.   In men of cultural creativeness the almost
vanished consciousness of the need for service
to something larger than the personal must be
aroused.    But the process now at work in the
world means not only the end of individualism,
but also terrible danger to the eternal truth of
personalism, which means a threat to the very
existence of human personality.   In the collec-
tive, personal consciousness is extinguished and
replaced by that of the collective itself.    Thought
is regimented, and instead of personal conscience
we have the conscience of the  group.    The
change in consciousness is so radical that even
the attitudes toward truth and falsehood are
changed.   What once was falsehood to the per-
sonal consciousness now becomes part of human
duty in the conscience of the collective.    Think-
ing, as well as critical judgment, is compelled to
march in step.

Collectivism and the collective conscience are
not new in history. History began with it and
collectivism has always been present in history,
for the average man, for the mass. The herd